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What Is Biopsy? - Procedure, Types And Importance

7:49 AM
What Is A Biopsy?

Certainly, let's break down the definition of a biopsy in detail:

Definition: A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue or cells is removed from a living organism, often a human body, for the purpose of microscopic examination. Biopsies are performed to diagnose various medical conditions by analyzing the cellular and structural characteristics of the collected tissue sample.

Key Components of a Biopsy:

Sample Extraction: During a biopsy, a healthcare professional selectively removes a small piece of tissue or a sample of cells from a specific area of the body that is suspected to be abnormal or diseased.

Diagnostic Purpose: The primary goal of a biopsy is to gather diagnostic information about the condition of the tissue or cells. This information is essential for identifying diseases, abnormalities, or changes that may not be apparent through external observation or imaging alone.

Microscopic Examination: The collected tissue sample is examined under a microscope by a specialized medical professional called a pathologist. The pathologist evaluates the cellular structure, organization, and any irregularities within the sample.

Types of Biopsies: Biopsies can be classified into various types based on factors such as the method of extraction, the location of the tissue, and the purpose of the procedure. Common types include needle biopsies, surgical biopsies, endoscopic biopsies, punch biopsies, and bone marrow biopsies.

Diagnosis and Treatment Planning: The information obtained from the biopsy helps in making accurate diagnoses, determining the stage and severity of diseases (especially cancers), and formulating appropriate treatment plans tailored to the patient's condition.

Guidance Techniques: In some cases, biopsies are guided by imaging techniques like ultrasound, CT scans, or MRI to ensure precise targeting of the tissue of interest. This increases the accuracy of the procedure and minimizes damage to surrounding healthy tissue.

Risk and Benefits: While biopsies are generally safe, they are not without risks. Possible complications include bleeding, infection, discomfort, and rare instances of damage to surrounding structures. The potential benefits, however, far outweigh these risks, as biopsies provide crucial information for informed medical decisions.

Informed Consent: Before undergoing a biopsy, patients typically provide informed consent, which involves understanding the procedure, its purpose, potential risks, and benefits. This ensures that patients are actively involved in their healthcare decisions

Procedure of Biopsy:

Certainly, let's delve into the details of the biopsy procedure:

1. Indication and Planning:
Biopsies are conducted when there's a need to examine a specific area of tissue or cells in the body for diagnostic purposes. This could include suspected cancers, infections, autoimmune disorders, or other abnormal conditions. Before the procedure, the medical team reviews the patient's medical history, symptoms, and imaging results to determine the best approach for the biopsy.

2. Pre-procedure Preparation:
Depending on the type of biopsy, the patient might need to undergo certain preparations. These could involve fasting before the procedure, stopping specific medications that could affect bleeding, or making arrangements for sedation or anesthesia if needed.

3. Anesthesia:
Local anesthesia is commonly used to numb the area where the biopsy will be performed. In some cases, general anesthesia might be used, especially if the procedure is more extensive or if the patient needs to be completely unconscious.

4. Biopsy Procedure:

The specific technique used for the biopsy varies based on factors such as the location of the tissue to be sampled and the type of tissue involved.

Needle Biopsy: A thin, hollow needle is inserted into the area of concern. This can be done through the skin or guided by imaging techniques like ultrasound, CT, or MRI. A small tissue sample is extracted through the needle.

Surgical Biopsy: This involves making a small incision to access the tissue or, in some cases, a larger incision to access deep tissues. The surgeon then removes a portion of the tissue for examination. This method is often used when a larger sample is required or when the area is difficult to access through a needle.

Endoscopic Biopsy: An endoscope, a flexible tube with a camera and light at its tip, is inserted into the body through a natural opening or small incision. Tools can be passed through the endoscope to collect tissue samples from within the body.

Punch Biopsy: A small, circular tool is used to remove a sample of tissue from the surface layers of the skin. This is commonly used for diagnosing skin conditions.

Bone Marrow Biopsy: A needle is inserted into the bone, usually the hip bone, to extract a sample of bone marrow. This procedure is often used to diagnose blood disorders and certain types of cancers.

5. Sample Collection:
The collected tissue sample is placed in a sterile container and carefully labeled with the patient's information. It's essential to handle the sample correctly to prevent contamination or damage.

6. Post-procedure Care:
After the biopsy, the patient may need to remain under observation for a period, especially if sedation or anesthesia was used. Pain relief medications might be prescribed if needed. The patient will be given instructions for wound care and any limitations on activity.

7. Pathology Analysis:
The collected tissue sample is sent to a laboratory, where a pathologist examines it under a microscope. The pathologist looks for abnormalities in the tissue's structure, cell types, and any signs of disease. The results of this analysis contribute to the final diagnosis.

8. Diagnosis and Treatment Planning:
Once the pathology analysis is complete, the results are communicated to the patient's healthcare provider. These results help guide further medical decisions, such as confirming a diagnosis, staging a cancer, or determining the appropriate treatment plan.

9. Follow-up:
Patients typically have a follow-up appointment with their healthcare provider to discuss the biopsy results, go over the diagnosis, and discuss the recommended course of action, which could involve additional tests, treatments, or interventions.

It's important to note that while biopsies are generally safe procedures, they can carry risks such as bleeding, infection, and discomfort. Patients should discuss any concerns or questions they have with their healthcare provider before undergoing a biopsy.

Types of Biopsy

There are several types of biopsies, each tailored to the specific area of concern and the nature of the suspected condition. Here are some common types of the biopsies:

Needle Biopsy:

Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA): A very thin needle is used to withdraw cells or fluid from a lump or mass, often in the breast, thyroid, or lymph nodes. This type of biopsy is used for diagnosing cysts or solid masses.

Core Needle Biopsy: A larger, hollow needle is used to extract a small cylindrical sample of tissue from a mass. It's commonly used to diagnose breast, prostate, and lung abnormalities.

Vacuum-Assisted Biopsy: Similar to core needle biopsy, this technique uses a vacuum to collect multiple tissue samples through a single needle insertion.

Surgical Biopsy:

Incisional Biopsy: A portion of a larger mass or lesion is surgically removed for analysis. This is common when the entire mass cannot be or does not need to be removed.

Excisional Biopsy: The entire mass or suspicious tissue is surgically removed. This is often performed for smaller masses or easily accessible growths.

Shave Biopsy: A blade is used to shave off a superficial skin abnormality, like moles or skin tumors.

Endoscopic Biopsy:

Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: Used to collect tissue samples from the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum using an endoscope.

Colonoscopy: Tissue samples from the colon and rectum can be collected during this procedure.

Bronchoscopy: Tissue samples from the airways and lungs can be obtained using a bronchoscope.

Punch Biopsy:

A small, circular blade is used to remove a small section of tissue from the skin or mucous membranes. It's commonly used for diagnosing skin conditions like rashes, dermatitis, or suspected skin cancers.

Bone Marrow Biopsy:

A needle is inserted into the bone, often the hip bone, to extract a small sample of bone marrow for analysis. This is used to diagnose blood disorders, cancers, and conditions affecting bone marrow health.

Image-Guided Biopsy:

Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy: Ultrasound imaging helps guide the needle to the precise location for tissue collection, often used for breast, liver, and thyroid biopsies.
MRI-Guided Biopsy: MRI technology is used to guide the needle for accurate tissue sampling in areas that are difficult to access.

Liquid Biopsy:

Instead of removing tissue, this type of biopsy analyzes components like circulating tumor cells (CTCs) or cell-free DNA that are shed into the bloodstream. It's commonly used for certain types of cancer diagnosis and monitoring.

These are just some of the many types of biopsies available. The choice of biopsy method depends on factors such as the suspected condition, the location of the abnormality, the size of the sample needed, and the overall health of the patient. It's important for healthcare providers to determine the most appropriate type of biopsy based on the individual circumstances of each patient.

Importance of Biopsy

Biopsies are of paramount importance in the field of medicine due to their role in diagnosis, treatment planning, and monitoring of various medical conditions. Here are some key reasons why biopsies are crucial:

1. Accurate Diagnosis:
Biopsies provide definitive information about the nature of tissue abnormalities, allowing for accurate diagnoses. This is particularly critical in distinguishing between benign and malignant conditions, identifying specific types of cancers, and differentiating various diseases with similar symptoms.

2. Staging and Prognosis:
For cancers, biopsies help determine the stage of the disease by evaluating the extent of tumor growth and its potential spread to nearby tissues or distant organs. Staging is essential for planning appropriate treatments and predicting outcomes.

3. Treatment Planning:
The information gained from biopsies guides the selection of the most effective treatment strategies. For instance, knowing the specific type of cancer allows oncologists to tailor chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, or surgical approaches to the patient's unique situation.

4. Monitoring Treatment Efficacy:
Biopsies are used to assess how well a treatment is working. Changes in the tissue at a microscopic level can indicate whether the treatment is shrinking the tumor, slowing its growth, or causing other desired effects.

5. Targeted Therapies:
Biopsies can identify specific molecular or genetic characteristics of a tumor. This information is crucial for selecting targeted therapies, which are drugs designed to specifically target the unique features of a patient's tumor, potentially leading to more effective and less toxic treatments.

6. Disease Progression:
In chronic diseases like certain types of hepatitis or autoimmune disorders, biopsies help track the progression of the disease and guide decisions about adjusting treatment strategies.

7. Identification of Infections:
Biopsies can detect infectious agents within tissues, aiding in the diagnosis of infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites.

8. Research and Development:
Biopsies provide researchers with valuable samples to study disease mechanisms, develop new treatments, and gain insights into the biology of various conditions. This contributes to advancing medical knowledge and improving patient care over time.

9. Second Opinions:
Biopsy results can be sent to other medical professionals for additional opinions and confirmation of diagnoses, enhancing the accuracy of the diagnosis and ensuring appropriate treatment.

10. Patient Empowerment:
Biopsies involve the active participation of patients in their healthcare decisions. By providing concrete information about their condition, biopsies empower patients to make informed choices about their treatment plans and overall well-being.

In summary, biopsies serve as indispensable tools for diagnosing diseases, planning treatments, and monitoring patient responses. They contribute to personalized medicine by tailoring medical interventions to the individual characteristics of each patient's condition. The ability to obtain detailed information from biopsies has revolutionized medical practice and significantly improved patient outcomes across various fields of medicine.
What Is Biopsy? - Procedure, Types And Importance What Is Biopsy? - Procedure, Types And Importance Reviewed by SaQLaiN HaShMi on 7:49 AM Rating: 5

What Is Biodiversity? - Definition, Types And Importance

7:56 PM
What Is Biodiversity?

Biodiversity, short for biological diversity, refers to the variety of life forms and the different interactions among them within a given ecosystem or on a global scale. It encompasses the richness and variety of species of plants, animals, fungi, and microorganisms, as well as the genetic differences within these species. Biodiversity is not only about the number of species but also about their distribution, abundance, and ecological roles.

Biodiversity Is Important For Several Reasons:

Ecological Stability: Biodiverse ecosystems tend to be more stable and resilient in the face of disturbances, such as climate change, disease outbreaks, or human impacts. Different species can fill various ecological niches, which contributes to the overall stability of the ecosystem.

Ecosystem Services:
Biodiversity provides various essential services to humans and the environment, such as pollination of crops by insects, water purification, soil fertility, climate regulation, and carbon storage.

Medicinal Resources: Many of the world's medicines are derived from natural sources. 
Potential sources for new medications and medical treatments can be found in biodiversity.

Cultural and Aesthetic Value: Biodiversity contributes to cultural identity and heritage. It also offers aesthetic, recreational, and educational value.

Genetic Resources: The genetic diversity within species is important for crop breeding, ensuring that agricultural systems are adaptable to changing conditions.

Research and Discovery: Biodiversity holds scientific and educational value, allowing researchers to study the complexities of life, ecosystems, and evolutionary processes.

Ethical and Moral Considerations: Many people value biodiversity for ethical and moral reasons, considering the intrinsic value of all living beings.

Unfortunately, human activities, such as habitat destruction, pollution, overexploitation of resources, and climate change, have led to a significant loss of biodiversity worldwide. Conservation efforts are crucial to protect and preserve biodiversity for the benefit of both current and future generations.

Types Of Biodiversity :

Genetic diversity, species diversity, and ecological diversity are the three basic categories under which biodiversity can be divided. Each type represents a different aspect of the variety of life on Earth. Let's look further into these categories:

Genetic Diversity:

Genetic diversity refers to the variation in genes within a single species. It includes the differences in DNA sequences, alleles, and genetic traits among individuals of the same species. This diversity is essential because it gives evolution the components that it needs to succeed in occurring. Genetic diversity allows populations to adapt to changing environments and helps prevent the risk of inbreeding and the accumulation of harmful mutations.

Species Diversity:

Species diversity is the variety of different species present in a particular region or ecosystem. It includes the number of species as well as their relative abundance. High species diversity can indicate a healthy and resilient ecosystem. Species diversity is often categorized further into three components:

Species Richness: The total number of different species present in a specific area.

Species Evenness: The distribution of individuals among species. An ecosystem with even distribution has similar population sizes for each species.

Dominant Species: The species that has the highest abundance or biomass in an ecosystem.

Ecosystem Diversity:

Ecosystem diversity refers to the variety of different ecosystems in a particular region or on a global scale. An ecosystem is a complex web of interactions among species and their physical environment. Different ecosystems, such as forests, grasslands, wetlands, deserts, and aquatic systems, have unique structures, processes, and species compositions. Ecosystem diversity is important for maintaining a range of ecosystem services and for preserving the balance of different ecological functions.

These types of biodiversity are interconnected and mutually dependent. Genetic diversity within species contributes to species diversity, and species diversity contributes to the overall diversity of ecosystems. Preserving and managing all three types of biodiversity is critical for maintaining the health of our planet's ecosystems and the well-being of both human and non-human life.

Importance of biodiversity :

Biodiversity, short for biological diversity, refers to the variety and variability of life forms on Earth, including the different species of plants, animals, microorganisms, and the ecosystems they form. Biodiversity is essential for the health and sustainability of our planet, and its importance extends across various levels and dimensions:

Ecosystem Stability and Resilience: Biodiverse ecosystems tend to be more stable and resilient in the face of environmental changes, such as climate fluctuations, disease outbreaks, and natural disasters. A higher diversity of species within an ecosystem provides a buffer against disturbances, as some species may be more adaptable or resistant to certain changes.

Ecosystem Services: Biodiversity underpins a wide range of ecosystem services that are vital for human well-being. These services include clean air and water, pollination of crops, nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, flood control, and the regulation of climate. These services are essential for supporting agriculture, providing resources, and maintaining the overall balance of Earth's systems.

Medicine and Pharmaceuticals: Many of the world's medicines and pharmaceuticals have their origins in natural compounds found in plants, animals, and microorganisms. Biodiversity provides a vast genetic reservoir that could hold potential cures for diseases, making it crucial for medical research and the development of new treatments.

Genetic Diversity and Adaptation: Biodiversity represents a library of genetic material that allows species to adapt to changing conditions over time. Genetic diversity is essential for species to evolve and survive in response to environmental changes, such as climate shifts, disease outbreaks, and habitat alterations.

Cultural and Aesthetic Value: Biodiversity plays a significant role in human cultures and traditions. Indigenous communities often have deep connections to specific species and ecosystems, and biodiversity contributes to the aesthetic and recreational value of natural spaces. Many people find solace, inspiration, and recreational opportunities in diverse natural environments.

Economic Benefits: Biodiversity supports various industries such as agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and tourism. Many of these sectors rely on diverse ecosystems for their productivity and profitability.

Ecosystem Interactions: The relationships between species within ecosystems are complex and interconnected. Each species has a unique role to play in maintaining the balance of the ecosystem, such as predator-prey interactions, competition, and symbiotic relationships.

Scientific Knowledge and Research: Biodiversity offers a vast field of study for scientists and researchers, contributing to our understanding of ecological processes, evolution, genetics, and more. This knowledge informs conservation efforts and helps us manage and restore ecosystems.

Climate Change Mitigation: Biodiverse ecosystems, particularly forests, and wetlands, play a crucial role in mitigating climate change by capturing and storing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

Ethical and Moral Responsibility: As stewards of the planet, humans have an ethical responsibility to preserve and protect the diverse array of life forms that share Earth with us. Biodiversity is a testament to the beauty and complexity of life and reflects the interconnectedness of all living things.

In summary, biodiversity is vital for maintaining the health and functioning of ecosystems, supporting human well-being, advancing scientific knowledge, and upholding ethical and moral values. Preserving and enhancing biodiversity is essential for the long-term sustainability of our planet and its inhabitants.
What Is Biodiversity? - Definition, Types And Importance What Is Biodiversity? - Definition, Types And Importance Reviewed by SaQLaiN HaShMi on 7:56 PM Rating: 5

Insurance: What You Need to Know

11:18 PM

Insurance: What You Need to Know ?

Insurance has been a concept for many years. From the earliest days of maritime trade to the modern age of technology, insurance has played an important role in protecting people and businesses from financial loss. In this article, we'll take a closer look at insurance, what it is, how it works, and the different types of insurance available.

What is Insurance?

Insurance is a contract between an individual or business and an insurance company or government entity. The individual or business pays a premium (regular payments) to the insurer, and in exchange, the insurer agrees to pay out a specified amount of money or provide other benefits if a covered loss occurs.

The purpose of insurance is to protect individuals and businesses from financial losses that can result from unexpected events. For example, if a person gets into a car accident, their insurance policy may cover the cost of repairs to the car or medical bills resulting from injuries sustained in the accident. Without insurance, these costs could be overwhelming and potentially ruinous.

How Does Insurance Work?

Insurance works on the principle of risk pooling. Essentially, the insurer collects premiums from many individuals or businesses, and in exchange, agrees to pay out claims to those who experience covered losses. By spreading the risk across a large pool of people or businesses, insurers are able to provide coverage at a reasonable cost.

When an individual or business purchases an insurance policy, they typically choose the amount of coverage they want and the deductible they are willing to pay. The deductible is the amount of money that the insured must pay out of pocket before the insurer begins to pay. Generally, policies with lower deductibles have higher premiums, while policies with higher deductibles have lower premiums.

If a covered loss occurs, the insured person or business files a claim with the insurer. The insurer then investigates the claim to determine whether it is covered under the policy. If the claim is approved, the insurer will pay out the specified amount of money or provide other benefits, such as arranging for repairs to a damaged car or paying for medical treatment.

Different Types of Insurance :

Both people and organizations can choose from a wide variety of insurance options. Some of the most popular types of insurance include the following:

Health Insurance: Health insurance covers the cost of medical care for individuals and families. It may cover costs associated with prescription medications, hospital stays, doctor visits, and other medical expenses.

Life Insurance: Life insurance provides financial protection to the family of an individual in case of their untimely death. It can help with expenses including living expenses, overdue debts, and burial fees.

Auto Insurance: Auto insurance covers the cost of repairs or replacement for a vehicle in case of an accident, as well as liability for injuries or damages caused to others.

Home Insurance: Home insurance provides coverage for damage or loss to a home and its contents, as well as liability for injuries or damages caused to others on the property.

Liability Insurance: Liability insurance protects individuals or businesses from lawsuits brought by others who claim to have been injured or suffered damage as a result of their actions.

Conclusion :

Insurance is an important concept that provides protection against financial losses that can occur due to unexpected events. By pooling risk and spreading it across a large group of individuals or businesses, insurers are able to offer coverage at a reasonable cost. Whether it's health insurance, life insurance, auto insurance, home insurance, or liability insurance, there are many different types of insurance available to meet a wide range of needs.

Insurance: What You Need to Know Insurance: What You Need to Know Reviewed by SaQLaiN HaShMi on 11:18 PM Rating: 5

Nadra Technologies Limited NTL Islamabad Job Interview 2022

10:02 PM
NADRA National Database & Registration Authority nadra.gov.pk Jobs

Date Posted / Updated:
02 December, 2022
Category / Sector:
Vacancy Location:
Islamabad, Punjab, Pakistan
Job Industry:
Job Type:
Full Time
Expected Last Date:
20 December, 2022
or as per paper ad

Nadra Technologies Limited NTL Islamabad, Islamabad Islamabad Pakistan invites applications from eligible candidates for the post of security guard and data entry executive as per advertisement of December 2, 2022 published in daily Ausaf Newspaper. Candidates with Bachelor, Intermediate and Middle etc. educational background will be preferred.

Latest Government jobs in Nadra Technologies Limited NTL in Management and others can be applied till NaN undefined NaN or as per closing date in newspaper ad. Read complete ad online to know how to apply on latest Nadra Technologies Limited NTL job opportunities

Nadra latest Government Management jobs and others can be applied till December 20, 2022 or as per closing date in newspaper ad. Read complete ad online to know how to apply on latest District Council job opportunities.
For more jobs register with YourLearningPoint.

👉General Information :

Job Posted Date: 02 December, 2022

City/Location: Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Rawalakot, Gilgit, Skardu, Azad Kashmir

Job Category: Full Time

Job Type: Government

Vacancies Title:
  • Data Entry Executive
  • Security Guard
Total Vacancies: 85

Last Date To Apply: 20 December, 2022

👉Eligibility Criteria :

Education Required: Primary | Middle | Matric | Bachelor

Experience Required: N/A

Age Limit: 18-35 Years

👉Company / Department Information :

Organization: District Council

Website: https://nadra.gov.pk/careers

Email: N/A

Telephone: N/A

👉How To Apply ? :

APPLY ONLINE: https://nadra.gov.pk/careers

How to Apply for this job: Mentioned in image below

👉WhatsApp Job Alerts :

Join our WhatsApp group and every day we will send you the best job links, curated by our team of jobs alert.

Join Our WhatsApp Group:
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👉Job Description :

Latest Government jobs in Nadra Technologies Limited in Management and others can be applied till 20 December 2022 or as per closing date in newspaper ad. Read complete ad online to know how to apply on latest NADRA Nadra Technologies Limited job opportunities.
Nadra Technologies Limited Job 2022

Original Source: https://www.dailyausaf.com/epaper/page?station_id=7&date=2022-12-02&page_id=174541

Nadra Technologies Limited NTL Islamabad Job Interview 2022 Nadra Technologies Limited NTL Islamabad Job Interview 2022 Reviewed by SaQLaiN HaShMi on 10:02 PM Rating: 5

District Council Rawalpindi Job 2022

10:31 PM
Latest District Council Management Posts Rawalpindi 2022

Date Posted / Updated:
15 November, 2022
Category / Sector:
Vacancy Location:
Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan
Job Industry:
Job Type:
Full Time
Expected Last Date:
10 December, 2022
or as per paper ad

District Council Rawalpindi, Rawalpindi Punjab Pakistan invites applications from eligible candidates for the post of Mali, Chowkidar, Sanitary Worker and Naib Qasid as per advertisement of November 15, 2022 published in daily Nawaiwaqt Newspaper. Primary and Middle etc. educational qualification will be preferred.

District Council latest Government Management jobs and others can be applied till December 10, 2022 or as per closing date in newspaper ad. Read complete ad online to know how to apply on latest District Council job opportunities.
For more jobs register with YourLearningPoint.

👉General Information :

Job Posted Date: 15 November, 2022

City/Location: Rawalpindi

Job Category: Full Time

Job Type: Government

Vacancies Title:
  • Chowkidar
  • Naib Qasid
  • Sanitary Worker
  • Mali
Total Vacancies: 25

Last Date To Apply: 10 December, 2022

👉Eligibility Criteria :

Education Required: Primary | Middle | Matric

Experience Required: N/A

Age Limit: 18-25 Years

👉Company / Department Information :

Organization: District Council

Website: https://lgcd.punjab.gov.pk/district-rawalpindi

Email: N/A

Telephone: N/A

👉How To Apply ? :

APPLY ONLINE: https://lgcd.punjab.gov.pk/district-rawalpindi

How to Apply for this job: Mentioned in image below

👉WhatsApp Job Alerts :

Join our WhatsApp group and every day we will send you the best job links, curated by our team of jobs alert.

Join Our WhatsApp Group:
Click Here!

👉Job Description :

Latest Government jobs in District Council in Management and others can be applied till 10 December 2022 or as per closing date in newspaper ad. Read complete ad online to know how to apply on latest District Council job opportunities.

District Council Rawalpindi Job 2022

Original Source: https://www.nawaiwaqt.com.pk/E-Paper/multan/2022-11-15/page-10

District Council Rawalpindi Job 2022 District Council Rawalpindi Job 2022 Reviewed by SaQLaiN HaShMi on 10:31 PM Rating: 5

What is Z-Scheme Explain?

2:20 AM


"The reaction which depends upon light are called light reactions or Z-Scheme."

It is also called an "ENERGY CONVERSION PHASE".

That phase is completed by following the steps.

(1) Photosystems:

Photosynthetic pigments are organized into clusters called photosystems in the thylakoid membrane. The photosystems absorb and utilize solar energy.

There are the following parts of photosystems.

(a) Antenna Complex:

In the photosystem, the part which absorbs light energy is called the antenna complex.

The antenna complex contains carotenoid chlorophyll b and chlorophyll a.

(b) Reaction Centre:

The area which takes electrons (energy)k from the antenna complex and starts the light reaction is called the reaction center. The reaction center contains.

(i) One or more molecules of chlorophyll a.

(ii) Primary electron acceptor.

(iii) Electron-associated protein.

(c) Electron Transport Chain :

Photosystems contain a series of electron transport systems and chains such systems contain PQ, cytochrome, and PC.

There are two photo systems:

  • Photosystem I
  • Photosystem II

Reaction in Photosystem II:

PS II absorbs light of 680 nm wavelength it contains chlorophyll which is the best light absorber of 680 nm. PS II chlorophyll antenna complex transfer this energy to the reaction center and then from the reaction center to the primary electron acceptor.

This acceptor traps the high-energy electrons and then pushes these electrons to the series of electron carriers' electron transport chains.

During this flow of electrons following reactions take place.

Non-Cycle Phosphorylation:

That process is completed by following the steps.

(i) PS II absorbs light and an electron is excited.

(ii) P680 As Oxidizing Agent:

The excited electron is shifted to the reaction center and then to electron (primary) acceptors of PS II.

That chlorophyll is oxidizing and acts as a strong oxidizing agent. It has an electron "hole" that must be filled.

(iii) Photolysis:

The breakage of water during this light reaction is called photolysis.

This reaction breaks water into two Hᐩ, 2eー, and one oxygen atom. Oxygen atoms combine with another atom to form oxygen molecules O2  ─ to remove in the air.

(iv) Electron Transport Chain: (First):

Photoexcited electrons are shifted from PS II to PS I by the electron transport chain. This chain consists of :

(a) PQ          Plastoquinone

(b) Cyt         Cytochromes - two complex.

(c) PC           Plastocyanin - Copper-containing protein.

(v) Photophosphorylation:

The formation of ATP in the presence of light is called photophosphorylation.

Energy flow provides energy for the synthesis of ATP-ATP formation during non-cyclic electron flow is called non-cyclic photophosphorylation.

This ATP provides chemical energy for dark reactions as the electrons move down the chain their energy is decreased.

(vi) Reactions in Photosystem I:

The electrons reach the bottom of the electron transport chain and fill the electron hole in PS I.

PS I has chlorophyll a and absorb light of 700 nm. It is also called P700.

When PS I absorb light and its electrons move towards the primary acceptor of PS I. So the hole is produced which is filled by the electron of PS II.

(vii) Second Electron Transport Chain:

From the primary acceptor of PS I the electrons are shifted to a second electron transport chain. This chain consist of

(a) Fd - ferredoxin - ion-containing protein.

(b) NADP - nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate.

The electrons are from the primary acceptor to Fd and from Fd to NADP. In the presence of NADP reductase enzyme, the NADP changes into NADPH.

NADPH molecule provides reducing power for the formation of sugar during Calvin Cycle.

(viii) Cyclic Phosphorylation:

The process in PS-I is in which electrons are shifted from Fd to cytochrome, then to PC, and again to PS I. During this reaction, no NADPH and oxygen is produced. It does not take place by PS-II. It takes place by PS II. It takes place in PS I when the chloroplast produces low ATP for the Calvin Cycle. When more NADPH is collected in the chloroplast and the demand for ATP is fully supplied that cyclic phosphorylation is down.

The cyclic flow is a short circuit it is started due to the rise of NADPH. It is a temporary shifting of electrons from non-cyclic to cyclic electron flow.

What is Z-Scheme Explain? What is Z-Scheme Explain? Reviewed by SaQLaiN HaShMi on 2:20 AM Rating: 5

The Importance of Fungi

7:04 AM
Write a note on the importance of fungi?


Fungi are ecologically as well as economically very important.

Ecologically Importance:

Fungi have great ecological importance as decomposers, symbionts, and bioremediators.

1) Decomposers:

Fungi, along with saprobic bacteria, play a vital role in the recycling of inorganic nutrients in the ecosystem.

Without decomposition, all the essential nutrients would soon become locked up in the form of dead animals, plants, and the wastes of the animals and plants. Therefore, the essential nutrient would be unavailable to the organisms. As a result, the life would cease.

2) Symbionts:

(i) Mycorrhizae:

Mycorrhizae fungi improve the growth of plants with which they are associated.

About 95% of all kinds of vascular plants have this association.

(ii) Lichens:

lichens growing on the rock break them, setting a stage for other organisms during the course of ecological succession.

(iii) Bioremediation:

Some fungi are also used for bioremediation(degrading/removing) environmental poisons/ pollutants by organisms.

(iv) Bioindicators:

Lichens are very good bioindicators of air quality as they are very sensitive to pollution.

3) Commercial Importance:

Fungi cause economic gain as well as losses.

Economics gains due to fungi:

1) Edible Fungi:

Certain fungi are edible. About 200 species of mushroom,(e.g. Agaricus sp), morels (e.g. Morchella esculenta), truffles (underground fruiting bodies of some Ascomycetes, e.g. Tuber sp that people find with the help of trained dogs or pigs) are common edible fungi.

Reindeer moss (a lichen, not a moss) is used as food for reindeer and some other large animals in the arctic/subarctic/boreal region.

There are some poisonous mushrooms called the toadstools, such as death cap/death angle (Amanita) and jack-O lantern mushroom.

Edible fungi (a) A common morel (Morchella esculenta).

(2) Fermenting Agent:

Certain fungi are used in the food industry because of their fermenting ability.

Yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisia) are used in the production of bread and liquor.

Penicillium species are used for giving flavour, aroma, and characteristics colour to some cheese.

Some species of Aspergillus are used for fermenting/producing soya sauce and soya paste from the soya bean.

Citric acid is also obtained from some Aspergillus species.

Antibiotics and Drugs:

(a) Some fungi are sources of antibiotics and some other drugs. Penicillin, the first antibiotic discovered (by A. Fleming-1928) is obtained from Penicillium notatum.

(b) Lovastatin is used for lowering the blood cholestrol.

(c) Cyclosporine obtained from a soil fungus is used in organ transplanation for preventing transplant rejection.

(d) Ergotine is used to relieve one kine of headache, migraine.

(e) Griseofulvin is used to inhibit fungal growth.

(4) Dyes:

Some natural dyes obtained from lichens are used in the textile industry.

(5) Biological Research:

(a) Yeasts are heavily used in genetic/molecular biological research because of their rapid generation and rapidly increasing pool of genetic and biochemical information.

(b) Yeasts were the first eukaryotes to be used by genetic engineers. In 1983, a functional artificial chromosomes was made in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

The same yeasts was the first eukaryote whose genomic sequence was completely studied in 1996.

(c) Yeasts are also being investigated for the production of some hormones.

(d) Pink bread mold (Neurospora) has also been used for genetic research.

Economic Losses Due to Fungi:

Fungi are responsible for plant diseases, animal diseases, and food spoilage.

Plant Diseases:

Fungi are responsible for many serious plant diseases because they produce several enzymes that can break down cellulose, lignin, and cutin. All plants are susceptible to them. Some of the plant diseases are as follows.

(i) Rusts and Smuts:

Extensive damages due to rusts and smut diseases of wheat, corn, and rise prompted mass displacement, and starvation to death of many people.

(ii) Other Diseases:

Powdery mildew (on grapes, rose and wheat, etc.), ergot of rye, red rot of sugar cane, Potato wilt, cotton root rot, apple scab, and brown rot of peaches, plums, apricots, and cherries are some other common plant diseases caused by fungi.

(iii) Wood-rotting Fungi:

Wood-rotting fungi destroy not only living trees but also structural timber.

Bracket/shelf fungi (Fig. 816) cause a lot of damage to the stored cut lumber as well as stands of timber of living trees.

Animal Diseases:

Fungi also cause certain animal diseases. Some are as follows:

(i) Ringworm and Athlete's Foot:

Ringworm and athlete's foot are superficial fungal infections caused by certain imperfect fungi.

(ii) Candidiasis or Candidosis:

Candida albicans, a yeasts, causes oral and vaginal thrush (candidiasis or candidosis).

(iii) Histoplasmosis:

Histoplasmosis is a serious infection lungs caused by inhaling spores of a fungus which is common in soil contaminated with bird's feces.

If infection spreads into blood stream and then to other organs (which is very occasional), it can be serious or even fatal.

(iv) Aspergillosis:

Aspergillus fumigatus causes aspergillosis, but only in persons with the defective immune system such as AIDS and may cause death.

(v) Aflatoxins:

Some strains of Aspergillus flavus produce carcinogenic (cancer-causing) mycotoxins (toxins produced by fungi) called aflatoxins.

Aspergillus contaminates improperly stored grains such as peanuts and corn etc and they have aflatoxins.

Milk, eggs, and meat may also have small traces of aflatoxins.

Note: Any moldy human food or animal forage produce should be discarded.

(vi) Ergotism:

Ergotism is caused by eating bread made from purple ergot-contaminated rye flour.

The poisonous material in the ergot causes nervous spasm, convulsion, Psychotic delusion, and gangrene.

Food Spoilage:

Saprobic fungi are not only useful recyclers but also cause vast damage to the food, wood, fiber and leather by decomposing them.

About 15-50% of world's fruit is lost each year due to fungal attack.

Growth on Shower Curtains:

A pink yeast (Rhodotorula) grows on shower curtains and other moist surfaces.
The Importance of Fungi The Importance of Fungi Reviewed by SaQLaiN HaShMi on 7:04 AM Rating: 5
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