Euphorbiaceae


Euphorbiaceae
300 genera 7500 species distribution widely in tropical and subtropical region.
Field identification; Plants usually with milky latex, leaves alternate, flower unisexual, carpals three, ovary superior and ovule with caruncle fleshy outgrowth.

Description: Shrubs, herbs, trees with often milky colour latex.

Leaves: Alternate, rarely opposite simple or compound leaves, stipule present, sometime glandular rarely absent.

Inflorescences: Cup-shaped, cyathium.

Flower: Unisexual, monoecious, or dioecious species actinomorphic hypogynous.

Calyx: Perianth usually 5 representing sepals.

Corolla: Sometime absent rarely 5.

Androecium: 1 to 2 and many stamens, filament free sometime connate dehiscence longitudinally.

Gynoecium: Three carpel tricarpellary united [syncarpous]. Carpals rarely four to many, ovary superior, trilocular with 1 to 2 ovules, style 3

Fruit: Shizocarpic capsule [a simple dry fruit formed by a gynoecium segmented separating at fruit Sigma [ a dry schizocarpic  fruit with elastically opening segmented  as in castor oil. Rarely a berry pulpy fruit derived from a compound gynoecium with the seed enclosed within its fruit or drupes { fleshy one seeded  indehiscent fruit within the seed enclosed in the stony endocarp].

Seed:  Often with conspicuous fleshy outgrowth called caruncle. Embryo curved sometime straight endosperm abundant sometime absent.

Economic importance: The family includes a number of valuable plants such as source of brasiliensis rubber Hevea brasiliensis, cassava.

Ø Manihot esculenta [cassava] source of dietary fibre.
Ø The common ornamental plant such as Euphorbia pulcherrima, Euphorbia splendens, Acalypha hispida are ornamental plant.
Ø Jatropha panduraefolia source of biodiesel.
Ø The fruit of Phyllanthus emblica [ammla] very rich source of vitamin c and its oil used for best hair growth.
Ø Ricinus communis [castor oil] rich source of oil used for pharmaceutical and for industrial uses.

Euphorbiaceae Euphorbiaceae Reviewed by SaQLaiN HaShMi on 6:41 PM Rating: 5

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