International Code of Botanical Nomenclature

International Code of Botanical Nomenclature
The foundation of international code of botanical nomenclature are found in linnaeus (book name) philosophia botanica in 1751, where in he proposed certain principle of nomenclature and other significant work on plant nomenclature was Augustin de-candolle Theorie elementareae de ta botanique 1813 which give detail rule on plant nomenclature.

However the first organize effort to develop a precise and simple system of nomenclature to be used by botanist in all countries were made at the 1st  international botanical congress held in 1867 in paris. At this congress the laws of botanical nomenclature proposed by Alphone De-candolle. He was son of A.De-candolle  were adopted with some modification as a guide for nomenclature in plant kingdom. These rules are known as D.candolle rules or Paris code of 1867.

The subsequent internal botanical congress made significant contribution with regard to plant nomenclature, but it was only at Cambridge in 1930, that for the 1st time in botanical history a code of nomenclature came into being. That was international function as well as name.

The rule of nomenclature adopted at Cambridge congress were subjected to some changes and refinement from time to time. However in 12th botanical congress held in Russia in august 1975. The 15 botanical congress held at Tokyo 1993.

The code is divided into three parts.
(i)Principle (ii)Rules and (iii) Recommendation.

Principle form the basis for system of botanical nomenclature.

Rules six principle rules of code are as follow

1.     The botanical nomenclature is independent of zoological nomenclature.
2.     The application of name of taxonomy group is determined by means by nomenclature type.
3.     The nomenclature of taxonomy group is based upon priority of publication.
4.     Each taxonomic group bear only one correct name, the earliest that is in accordance with rules of except in specific cases.
5.     Scientific name of taxonomy group are treated as Latin regardless of their derivation.
6.     The rules of nomenclature are retroactive.

Recommendation are often practice application of the rules, their object to bring about uniformity and clearness, Specially in future nomenclature.
The code has three appendixes.

1)     Deals with name of hybrid.
2)     Nomina familiarum conservanda includes the names of families which are conserved.
3)     Nomina generica conservenda ET.Rejiscenda  
4)     list the name of genera against the priority of publication because of their long use.

Rules Of Nomenclature

Type method
1.     Holotype
2.     Lactotype
3.     Syntype
4.     Isotype
5.     Neotype
6.     Topotype

Type method/ Typification:
1.     Holotype: is a single type designated by the original author of a taxon is known as holotype.
2.    Isotype: are duplicates of the holotype often being sent to the herbaria. Isotype from single collection, that contain the holotype.
3.     Syntype: are two or more specimen designated by the original author when no holotype was designated.
4.    Lactotype: is one of the syntype subsequently chosen from the syntype to act in place of holotype.
5.     Neotype: is a specimen designated to act in place of a holotype. when no holotype and syntype exist. In some cases when all the material in which the description of new species was based is missing, then the neotype must be selected and selection once made must be followed by the subsequent botanist.
6.     Topotype: is a specimen collected from the same locality from where the holotype was collected previously.

Plural adjective and is formed by adding the suffix 'aceae' to the legitimate the name of genus; e.g Rosaceae from Rosa, Cucurbitaceae from Cucurbita etc.

Special exception is made for the following 8 families.
The names because of long usage are treated as validly published. For these families alternate name are primitive in the code.

·       Palmaceae             -                Arecaceae
·       Guttiferae              -                Clusiaceae
·       Compositae           -                Astraceae
·       Umbelliferae         -                Apiaceae
·       Leguminosae         -                Fabaceae
·       Graminae               -                Poaceae
·       Labiatae                 -                Lamiaceae
·       Cruciferae              -                Brassicaceae

International Code of Botanical Nomenclature International Code of Botanical Nomenclature Reviewed by SaQLaiN HaShMi on 7:33 PM Rating: 5

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